The research process

The Foundation’s Benchmark research team measures company behaviour using a rigorous process of data-collection, verification, scoring and analysis. Find out more about what these phases involve.

Data-collection and verification

During data-collection, the research team uses public sources of information as well as data submitted directly by the companies evaluated. The data submitted by the companies for analysis is cross-checked against publicly available sources. For example, regarding R&D clinical pipelines, projects declared by the companies were verified against clinical trials registries, including the NIH ClinicalTrials.gov and the EU Clinical Trials Register, to confirm their existence and the clinical phase. In another example, collaborations submitted by companies (such as educational programmes) were confirmed using the websites of the corresponding partner, such as Wellcome Trust or BARDA. Data was accepted for evaluation if it related to a policy, project or other activity that was in effect during the period of analysis. The 2020 Benchmark analyses relevant data valid between 09 September 2017 and 21 June 2019.

Scoring the companies

The research team scores the companies in each of the Benchmark metrics against a strict set of scoring guidelines, developed with reference to external experts. The research team compiles an extensive, detailed database of all products and R&D projects that qualify for analysis by the Index, as a central analytical platform. In 2020, the database includes 1,521 products and 138 R&D projects.

Progress and gap analysis

Once scoring is complete, the team begins combing the data to assess the current level of activity across the industry on AMR, as well as signs of progress or stagnation. The analysis shows how a cross-section of the industry is responding to AMR by benchmarking them against the consensus view on where they can and should be making progress. Once analysis is complete, key sections of the report are shared with independent experts for their view on the findings.


Learn more

View our detailed overview of each company’s performance

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