How we measure
The AMR Benchmark evaluates pharmaceutical companies in areas where they have the biggest potential and responsibility to limit antimicrobial resistance, such as R&D and managing manufacturing waste. Find out more about the analytical framework.
Analytical framework: 19 indicators across three Research Areas
The AMR Benchmark evaluates company action using an analytical framework of three Research Areas: Research & Development, Responsible Manufacturing and Appropriate Access & Stewardship. The three Research Areas have been confirmed by stakeholders as those areas where pharmaceutical companies have core responsibilities to limit AMR: developing new medicines to replace the ones that no longer work, and finding new ways of ensuring antibiotics are produced and promoted responsibly, i.e., through ‘stewardship’.
A Research & Development
This Research Area captures companies’ R&D activities to develop new medicines and vaccines targeting pathogens posing the greatest threat to human health. It will highlight areas of R&D focus and where gaps remain, and assess how companies plan to ensure new products can swiftly be made available and accessible for people in need.
B Responsible Manufacturing
This Research Area compares companies’ strategies for limiting the impact of antibacterial manufacturing on resistance. It will evaluate how thorough and transparent their environmental risk-management strategies are and how such strategies apply to the companies’ suppliers.
C Appropriate Access & Stewardship
This Research Area looks at how companies aim to responsibly increase access to antibacterial and antifungal medicines and vaccines while also limiting their misuse. Issues of both access and stewardship are closely interlinked as the need to enhance access where necessary must be balanced with that of ensuring optimal and appropriate use.
The Benchmark in 2020: 19 indicators
The framework for the 2020 AMR Benchmark comprises 19 indicators. This includes new indicators developed to capture companies’ access strategies for on- and off-patent products separately, and to analyse R&D for unmet needs. During a review of the methodology in 2018, Benchmark indicators have been modified or refined, either to tailor the metric more closely to stakeholders’ expectations of company behaviour or to improve data capture to enhance comparison between companies and to conduct additional analyses.
How a company is assessed by the Benchmark depends on its focus and business model – each type of company has a different, but necessary, role to play in curbing AMR. For instance, generic medicine manufacturers are not evaluated in the R&D metrics, as they are not typically active in R&D; SMEs are only evaluated in this area, as they generally have no products yet on the market.
The Benchmark cycle
Each AMR Benchmark is the product of a two-year process known as the ‘Benchmark cycle’, which begins with a review of the Benchmark methodology. This process aligns the metrics with changes in AMR and stakeholder consensus on what we expect from pharmaceutical companies to curb the emergence of AMR. We also use the review to reaffirm the robustness of the next Benchmark analysis, and ensure our capacity for trend analysis is maintained.